Parking Reports and Research

This page brings together a number of noteworthy publications in the form of reports, research and statistical findings involving parking.

If you have anything that you feel may be useful please contact Julian O'Kelly 

Public perceptions of parking - December 2020

Safer Parking Scheme Research - August 2018

What Can Bicycle Parking Teach the Wider Parking Industry? - January 2018 

Increased demand for cycling means that cycle parking is becoming a fast-growing part of the parking sector. Furthermore, the lessons to be learned by studying how cycle parking infrastructures promote different forms of travel experience and consumer behaviour have radical implications for the wider parking industry.

One of the principal motivations for this study was a research gap identified by Researching the Research, a project commissioned by the BPA in 2015. The Bursary was able to fund Dr Peter Wood’s research, to carry out a qualitative study of cycle parking.

Research on bureaucracy and its effect on innovation in the UK parking industry - Aug 2016

Through the John Heasman Bursary Richard McAlpin completed this research, exploring bureaucracy and its effect on innovation in the UK parking industry and how this affects technological development and advancement within both public and private sectors.

This research question is essential to ensure the effective management of a city or other urban area on both a local and strategic level. One of the principal motivations for this study was a research gap identified by the BPA’s commissioned project Researching the Research.

Researching the Research (pdf) - April 2015

The BPA commissioned Dr Adam Snow in October 2014 to carry out a project to examine existing academic research relating to parking from the UK and Europe. The objective was to provide a more detailed understanding of the research already undertaken, and identify areas where further research could be beneficial.

Local measures to encourage the uptake of low emission vehicles (pdf) - June 2015

This good practice guide, developed by ๔€€‘๔€€ƒLocal Carbon Vehicle Partnership and Urban Foresight, aims to assist local authorities understand a broad range of policy measures and initiatives that can be utilised to encourage the update of Low Emission Vehicles

In-Town Parking: What Works? Innovative Practices in Parking Provision (pdf) - ATCM 2014

Research carried out by ATCM reviews parking in town centres, a complex issue hampered by a number of significant problems. The growth of car ownership has exceeded what many of our traditional urban centres can easily accommodate. These case studies have been drawn from a wide range of locations, with differing parking demands and a range of factors influencing key decisions with regards to the approach to parking taken by individual towns and cities.

Motorists and Parking - June 2014

Nearly 24.7 million motorists in the UK think that parking rules and regulations are confusing, according to a report following research commissioned by BPA Approved Operators. 64% will always appeal a parking ticket whilst one third say the most annoying parking habit is drivers taking up more than one parking space! 

The research highlighted that half of motorists in the UK are often unaware of their rights with regards to parking and a further one in 10 do not know the difference between the rules for parking in a council or private car park. 

Key issues for drivers - December 2013

Research carried out by Sweeney Communication asked motorists at Park Mark car parks what they thought were the main factors in choosing where to park. They indicated their priorities were safety and location.

The Size and Shape of Parking in Higher & Further Education Facilities - July 2013

This report is the first of its kind, setting out to examine the size, shape and nature of parking across the Higher and Further Education sector.

POPLA Annual Report (POPLA website) - June 2013

POPLA came into existence on 1 October 2012 to consider appeals in respect of parking charge notices issued on or after that date. One of the requirements of the Transport Minister was that the Lead Adjudicator should prepare an annual report.

Retail Futures 2018: Shop Numbers, Online and The High Street (pdf) - May 2013

The Centre for Retail Research have produced a report that believes that retailing faces a crisis comprising weak consumer spending, low profitability and too many shops, and forecasts that, despite the Portas Pilots, the total number of UK retail stores will fall by 22% over the next five years.

The size and shape of the UK's parking profession (pdf) - April 2013

New research carried out by the BPA reveals that the primary driver of demand for car parking is the extent of car ownership and destination parking, more specifically commuter parking but also for shopping, leisure and related activities.

This fact sheet summarises the main findings of the research.

Re-think! Parking on the high street (pdf) - January 2013

This report into car parking in town centres and high streets shows no conclusive evidence that parking tariffs are influencing decline in locations across the UK.

Produced by the Association of Town & City Management (ATCM), the British Parking Association (BPA), Springboard Research Ltd and Parking Data & Research International (PDRI). It finds no clear relationship between charges and the amenities on offer in a location, and suggests that further research is needed.

Taking Possession: Councils’ use of bailiffs for local debt collection (pdf) - Local Government Ombudsman, Dec 2012

The Local Government Ombudsman has published a report on Councils’ use of bailiffs for debt collection. The repor, based on analysis of complaints made to the ombudsman, acknowledges how bailiffs are a vital part of council debt collection and what improvements can be made to ensure debt recovery action is reasonable, legal and proportionate.

The Relevance of Parking in the Success of Urban Centres (pdf) November 2012

This review was commissioned by London Councils to carry out a review of the relevance of parking to the success of urban centres. It addressed research questions relating to the correlation between the amount of free / cheap parking and commercial activity (if any), how people travel to town centres and what they spend. It also looked at how town centres can attract more visitors, and also considered questions relating to the night-time economy. 

Report on the level of provision for disabled customers in city centre car parks in England, Scotland and Wales (pdf) Disabled Motoring UK, October 2012

DMUK carried out a survey of 20 city centre car parks from across England, Scotland and Wales to discover how accessible the UK’s car parks are for disabled people. This report reveals the numerous access challenges faced by disabled car park users.

Keep the Nation Moving: Facts on Parking (pdf) - RAC Foundation, October 2012

This fact sheet, put together by RAC Foundation, gives an overview of statistics on the parking industry. It also covers parking on public land, penalty charge notices, parking on private land, clamping, parking supply, and the cost of parking. 

"94% say Park Mark is important"

The Rise of Meet & Greet Airport Parking (Infographic pdf) - Looking 4 Parking2012

The Rise of Meet & Greet Aiport Parking (findings, powerpoint)

This research by Looking4Parking explored the use of meet and greet airport parking and in particular the safety and security of parking. it was found that the Safer Parking Scheme Park Mark accreditation is of great importance to meet and greet airport parking 

Structural Safety and Maintenance of Car Parks in the UK - British Parking Association, July 2012

This report was prepared in response to a request from Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for the Department of Transport Norman Baker for the BPA to provide evidence of defective car parks in the UK. 

Spaced Out – perspectives on parking policy - Dr John Bates and David Leibling, RAC Foundation, July 2012

Mathematician Dr John Bates specialises in transport problems, and David Leibling, is a PATROL Annual Parking Report Award judge and London TravelWatch member.

The report looks mainly at local authority parking. It illustrates how little information has been collected about the quantity of parking available, whilst acknowledging the limit of local authorities’ resources to carry our large-scale audits in their areas.  Interestingly, the report argues that parking charges in some areas may actually be too low to allow authorities to afford the tools to enable better compliance. 

Parking Measures and Policies Research Review - Transport Research Laboratory 

This project investigated the evidence about the impact of different types of parking measures and policies on road traffic, congestion and transport safety, car ownership, on the level of carbon emissions from transport, on the activity of businesses, and on townscapes. The focus was mainly though not wholly, on urban areas. It has involved a Systematic Review of evidence from original and relevant studies.

The project aimed to support the Department for Transport’s (DfT) analytical and modelling capability in terms of improving its understanding of how economic activity is affected by transport investment and interventions such as parking. 

Synthesising the Tranpsose Times at Roadside Interview Sites Using Probability Functions Derived From Car Park Interview Dats - Stephen Moriarty, Terry Wang, Mouchel, UK

Roadside interviews are conducted to ascertain travel movements at the time they are made. The collection of roadside data is an expensive element in model development and there is often the pressure to minimising the costs and traffic disruption. One consequence is that the data collected may be limited to responses that can be collected relatively quickly such as survey location, interview time, occupancy, vehicle type, origin address, origin purpose, destination address, and destination purpose. 

An analysis of the extent of workplace violence in the Parking Enforcement Sector: A study of violence and abuse towards Parking Enforcement Staff in Bournemouth  (Dissertation) - Michael A. Thompson, Univeristy of Portsmouth, May 2010

Those tasked with enforcing parking have not often enjoyed a positive public image and are often subject to abuse and violence. Many of these incidents of a serious nature. This research examines the extent of workplace violence towards Parking Enforcement staff in the Borough of Bournemouth, examining quantitive and qualitative data in terms of incident reports and interviews with staff and additionally assessing management responses. 

The challenge of getting to the station, passenger experiences - Passenger Focus, August 2011

This report includes a summary of rail users experiences with car parking at railway stations.  Research indicates that the main issue passengers would like to see improved when it comes to car parking at stations is pricing, and increased availability of cheaper season tickets. In some areas of the country demand for car park spaces often exceeds capacity by the end of the morning peak, and causes a problem for those wishing to make journeys at times when the trains themselves are less busy. Research indicates that a lack of available spaces can suppress demand for rail travel, or at least increase the proportion of the journey being undertaken by car.