Pop-up bike lanes with protected space for cycling, wider pavements, safer junctions, and cycle and bus-only corridors will be created in England within weeks as part of a £250 million emergency active travel fund - the first stage of a £2 billion investment, as part of the £5 billion in new funding announced for cycling and buses in February.

Such alternative ways to travel could relieve the pressure on public transport, it is hoped. It is also hoped that Government will bring forward further COVID recovery policies that can deliver both economic and climate goals.

Such stimulus policies, for example those outlined in the Department our Transport's transport decarbonisation plan, would deliver large economic multipliers, reasonably quickly, and 'shift our emissions trajectory towards net zero.

The recovery packages can either kill these two birds with one stone – setting the global economy on a pathway towards net-zero emissions – or lock us into a fossil system from which it will be nearly impossible to escape, writes report lead author Cameron Hepburn, Director of the Oxford Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment.